Nextcloud Install/Setup

By | September 9, 2018

Steps to follow for a correct setup:

Recommended Equipment (Basic use no more than 5 users)

+

If you want setup for more than 10 users you have to think about memory ram and storage depend how many information your users wanna store.

Example:

I got in home 5tb on my NAS and this guy have 12gb of RAM and 8gb on SWP

System requirements:

Server

For best performance, stability and functionality we have documented some recommendations for running a Nextcloud server. The Nextcloud server is not compatible with Windows and macOS.

Platform Options
Operating System
  • Ubuntu 14.04/16.04/18.04 LTS (recommended)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5/7 (recommended)
  • Debian 8 (Jessie), 9 (Stretch)
  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 with SP3 & 12
  • openSUSE Leap 42.1+
  • CentOS 6.5/7
Database
  • MySQL or MariaDB 5.5+ (recommended)
  • Oracle Database 11g (only as part of an enterprise subscription)
  • PostgreSQL 9/10
  • SQLite (only recommended for testing and minimal-instances)
Webserver
  • Apache 2.4 with mod_php or php-fpm (recommended)
  • nginx with php-fpm
PHP Runtime
  • 5.6
  • 7.0 (recommended)
  • 7.1 (recommended)
  • 7.2

Memory

Memory requirements for running an Nextcloud server are greatly variable, depending on the numbers of users, apps, files and volume of server activity.

Database requirements for MySQL / MariaDB

The following is currently required if you’re running Nextcloud together with a MySQL / MariaDB database:

Desktop client

We strongly recommend using the latest version of your operating system to get the full and most stable experience out of our clients.

  • Windows 7+
  • macOS Lion (10.7)+ (64-bit only)
  • Linux (CentOS 6.5+, Ubuntu 14.04+, Fedora 21+, openSUSE 13, SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 SP3+, Debian 8 (Jessie)+, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7)

Mobile apps

We strongly recommend using the latest version of your mobile operating system to get the full and most stable experience out of our mobile apps.

  • iOS 9.x+
  • Android 4.x+

I suppose that you are ready pick and install the operative system, if not look on operative system section, pick one and install on your NAS server, then keep going.

Example installation on debian server

apt install snapd snap install nextcloud
Or you can use .deb packages to install the required and recommended modules for a typical Nextcloud installation, 
using Apache and MariaDB, by issuing the following commands in a terminal:
apt-get install apache2 mariadb-server libapache2-mod-php7.0
apt-get install php7.0-gd php7.0-json php7.0-mysql php7.0-curl php7.0-mbstring
apt-get install php7.0-intl php7.0-mcrypt php-imagick php7.0-xml php7.0-zip

  • This installs the packages for the Nextcloud core system. libapache2-mod-php7.0 provides the following PHP extensions: bcmath bz2
    calendar Core ctype date dba dom ereg exif fileinfo filter ftp gettext hash
    iconv libxml mhash openssl pcre Phar posix Reflection session shmop
    SimpleXML soap sockets SPL standard sysvmsg sysvsem sysvshm tokenizer wddx
    xmlreader xmlwriter zlib
    . If you are planning on running additional apps, keep in mind that they might require additional packages. See Prerequisites for manual installation for details.
  • At the installation of the MySQL/MariaDB server, you will be prompted to create a root password. Be sure to remember your password as you will need it during Nextcloud database setup.

Now download the archive of the latest Nextcloud version:

  • Go to the Nextcloud Download Page.

  • Go to Download Nextcloud Server > Download > Archive file for server owners and download either the tar.bz2 or .zip archive.

  • This downloads a file named nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2 or nextcloud-x.y.z.zip (where x.y.z is the version number).

  • Download its corresponding checksum file, e.g. nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2.md5, or nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2.sha256.

  • Verify the MD5 or SHA256 sum:

    md5sum -c nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2.md5 < nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2
    sha256sum -c nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2.sha256 < nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2
    md5sum  -c nextcloud-x.y.z.zip.md5 < nextcloud-x.y.z.zip
    sha256sum  -c nextcloud-x.y.z.zip.sha256 < nextcloud-x.y.z.zip
    
  • You may also verify the PGP signature:

    wget https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2.asc
    wget https://nextcloud.com/nextcloud.asc
    gpg --import nextcloud.asc
    gpg --verify nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2.asc nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2
    
  • Now you can extract the archive contents. Run the appropriate unpacking command for your archive type:

    tar -xjf nextcloud-x.y.z.tar.bz2
    unzip nextcloud-x.y.z.zip
    
  • This unpacks to a single nextcloud directory. Copy the Nextcloud directory to its final destination. When you are running the Apache HTTP server you may safely install Nextcloud in your Apache document root:

    cp -r nextcloud /path/to/webserver/document-root
    

    where /path/to/webserver/document-root is replaced by the document root of your Web server:

    cp -r nextcloud /var/www
    

On other HTTP servers it is recommended to install Nextcloud outside of the document root.

Apache Web server configuration

On Debian, Ubuntu, and their derivatives, Apache installs with a useful configuration so all you have to do is create a /etc/apache2/sites-available/nextcloud.conf file with these lines in it, replacing the Directory and other filepaths with your own filepaths:

Alias /nextcloud "/var/www/nextcloud/"

<Directory /var/www/nextcloud/>
  Options +FollowSymlinks
  AllowOverride All

 <IfModule mod_dav.c>
  Dav off
 </IfModule>

 SetEnv HOME /var/www/nextcloud
 SetEnv HTTP_HOME /var/www/nextcloud

</Directory>

Then create a symlink to /etc/apache2/sites-enabled:

ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/nextcloud.conf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/nextcloud.conf

Additional Apache configurations

  • For Nextcloud to work correctly, we need the module mod_rewrite. Enable it by running:

    a2enmod rewrite
    

    Additional recommended modules are mod_headers, mod_env, mod_dir and mod_mime:

    a2enmod headers
    a2enmod env
    a2enmod dir
    a2enmod mime
    

    If you’re running mod_fcgi instead of the standard mod_php also enable:

    a2enmod setenvif
    
  • You must disable any server-configured authentication for Nextcloud, as it uses Basic authentication internally for DAV services. If you have turned on authentication on a parent folder (via e.g. an AuthType Basic directive), you can turn off the authentication specifically for the Nextcloud entry. Following the above example configuration file, add the following line in the <Directory> section:

    Satisfy Any
    
  • When using SSL, take special note of the ServerName. You should specify one in the server configuration, as well as in the CommonName field of the certificate. If you want your Nextcloud to be reachable via the internet, then set both of these to the domain you want to reach your Nextcloud server.

  • Now restart Apache:

    service apache2 restart
    
  • If you’re running Nextcloud in a subdirectory and want to use CalDAV or CardDAV clients make sure you have configured the correct Service discovery URLs.

 

Pretty URLs

Pretty URLs remove the index.php-part in all Nextcloud URLs, for example in sharing links like https://example.org/nextcloud/index.php/s/Sv1b7krAUqmF8QQ, making URLs shorter and thus prettier.

mod_env and mod_rewrite must be installed on your webserver and the .htaccess must be writable by the HTTP user. Then you can set in the config.php two variables:

'overwrite.cli.url' => 'https://example.org/nextcloud',
'htaccess.RewriteBase' => '/nextcloud',

if your setup is available on https://example.org/nextcloud or:

'overwrite.cli.url' => 'https://example.org',
'htaccess.RewriteBase' => '/',

if it isn’t installed in a subfolder. Finally run this occ-command to update your .htaccess file:

sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ maintenance:update:htaccess

After each update, these changes are automatically applied to the .htaccess-file.

 

Enabling SSL

Note

You can use Nextcloud over plain HTTP, but we strongly encourage you to use SSL/TLS to encrypt all of your server traffic, and to protect user’s logins and data in transit.

Apache installed under Ubuntu comes already set-up with a simple self-signed certificate. All you have to do is to enable the ssl module and the default site. Open a terminal and run:

a2enmod ssl
a2ensite default-ssl
service apache2 reload

Note

Self-signed certificates have their drawbacks – especially when you plan to make your Nextcloud server publicly accessible. You might want to consider getting a certificate signed by a commercial signing authority. Check with your domain name registrar or hosting service for good deals on commercial certificates.

 

Installation wizard

After restarting Apache you must complete your installation by running either the graphical Installation Wizard, or on the command line with the occ command. To enable this, change the ownership on your Nextcloud directories to your HTTP user:

chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud/

To use occ see Installing from command line.

To use the graphical Installation Wizard see Installation wizard.

 

SELinux configuration tips

See SELinux configuration for a suggested configuration for SELinux-enabled distributions such as Fedora and CentOS.

 

php.ini configuration notes

Keep in mind that changes to php.ini may have to be configured on more than one ini file. This can be the case, for example, for the date.timezone setting.

php.ini – used by the Web server:

  /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
or
  /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini
or ...

php.ini – used by the php-cli and so by Nextcloud CRON jobs:

/etc/php5/cli/php.ini

 

php-fpm configuration notes

Security: Use at least PHP >= 5.6.6

Due to a bug with security implications in older PHP releases with the handling of XML data you are highly encouraged to run at least PHP 5.6.6 when in a threaded environment.

System environment variables

When you are using php-fpm, system environment variables like PATH, TMP or others are not automatically populated in the same way as when using php-cli. A PHP call like getenv('PATH'); can therefore return an empty result. So you may need to manually configure environment variables in the appropropriate php-fpm ini/config file.

Here are some example root paths for these ini/config files:

Ubuntu/Mint CentOS/Red Hat/Fedora
/etc/php5/fpm/ or /etc/php/7.0/fpm/ /etc/php-fpm.d/

In both examples, the ini/config file is called www.conf, and depending on the distro version or customizations you have made, it may be in a subdirectory such as pool.d.

Usually, you will find some or all of the environment variables already in the file, but commented out like this:

;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
;env[TMP] = /tmp
;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
;env[TEMP] = /tmp

Uncomment the appropriate existing entries. Then run printenv PATH to confirm your paths, for example:

$ printenv PATH
/home/user/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:
/sbin:/bin:/

If any of your system environment variables are not present in the file then you must add them.

Alternatively it is possible to use the environemt variables of your system by modifying

/etc/php/7.0/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

and uncommenting the line

clear_env = no

When you are using shared hosting or a control panel to manage your Nextcloud VM or server, the configuration files are almost certain to be located somewhere else, for security and flexibility reasons, so check your documentation for the correct locations.

Please keep in mind that it is possible to create different settings for php-cli and php-fpm, and for different domains and Web sites. The best way to check your settings is with PHP version and information.

Maximum upload size

If you want to increase the maximum upload size, you will also have to modify your php-fpm configuration and increase the upload_max_filesize and post_max_size values. You will need to restart php5-fpm and your HTTP server in order for these changes to be applied.

.htaccess notes for Apache

Nextcloud comes with its own nextcloud/.htaccess file. Because php-fpm can’t read PHP settings in .htaccess these settings and permissions must be set in the nextcloud/.user.ini file.

Source


 

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